Abdominal aorta and its branches.
1. Celiac artery—L1 level.
2. Superior mesenteric artery—1 centimeter below celiac axis.
3. Renal arteries—Bilateral.
4. Inferior mesenteric artery.
5. Middle sacral artery.
6. Lumbar arteries—Minor branches.
7. Aorta bifurcates into two common iliac arteries, which further branches into external and internal arteries bilaterally.
External iliac branches into inferior epigastric and the deep circumflex iliac artery continues as the femoral artery.
Branches of femoral artery—Common femoral artery gives profunda femoris branch and continues as superficial femoral artery, which further continues as the popliteal artery.
Popliteal artery branches:
• Anterior tibial artery becomes dorsalis pedis artery of foot.
• Posterior tibial artery.
• Peroneal artery.
Patient should be scanned in the supine position for aorta, iliac, femoral, distal tibial vessels, and in prone position for popliteal, proximal, and midtibial vessels.
All the vessels should be studied properly.
B-mode—Normally, the vessel wall is regular and the lumen is anechoic. No thrombus plaque or luminal narrowing is seen.
Normal Doppler spectrum of peripheral vessels—Triphasic pattern.
Sharp systolic peak.
Brief reversal of flow in early diastole and low-frequency forward flow in the late diastole.