Ultrasound Imaging of Joint Disease


Ultrasound Imaging of Joint Disease






Technical Aspects of Ultrasound


The development of higher-frequency transducers has allowed for improved resolution and, with the majority of joints lying relatively superficially, linear array probes of frequencies of 10 MHz or higher can be effectively utilized. Curvilinear probes, although rarely required for musculoskeletal imaging, may be useful for examining deeper joints such as the hip joint. Although transducer selection primarily depends upon the frequency, the probe footprint (the surface area of the transducer in contact with the skin) should be considered. Small footprint probes can be easily manoeuvred to image small superficial structures, small joints and at bony prominences such as the malleoli, where the skin surface does not allow adequate contact with larger probes. Stand-off gel pads can prove useful to reduce the amount of near-field reverberation when examining superficial structures; however, with modern probes these are rarely necessary and the use of liberal amounts of ultrasound jelly is usually all that may be required in practice.



Pitfalls and Limitations


Many of the pitfalls and limitations of ultrasound are dealt with elsewhere in this book. They include anisotropy and beam edge artifact. However, when undertaking ultrasound of joint disease certain specific pitfalls should be considered.


Excessive probe pressure can obliterate small quantities of fluid, reduce the sensitivity for detection of blood flow and may obscure synovitis.



Disadvantages compared to MRI include a small field of view and difficulty in demonstrating cartilage and deep joints in their entirety. Contrast-enhanced MRI provides a better measure of capillary permeability and enhancement characteristics, although the advent of 3-D ultrasound may narrow this gap. At present, both ultrasound and MRI are increasingly important in the diagnosis and management of early rheumatoid arthritis with no current clear winner as the imaging modality of choice.


Expertise is important in the interpretation of both ultrasound and MRI; however, unlike with MRI, reevaluation of ultrasound requires the patient to be recalled. Thus standardization of ultrasound criteria and validation of training both of the radiologist and the rheumatologist who perform these studies are paramount.



Techniques for Scanning the Small Joints of the Hands and Feet


While an all-inclusive examination of the small joints may be desirable, this is daunting and time consuming and can be modified by omitting joints that are frequently uninvolved, such as the distal interphalangeal joints (IPJs) and thumbs in rheumatoid arthritis.


It is the authors’ routine to examine the index, middle, ring and little fingers, although this may be adapted for specific clinical indications. Superficial structures such as the tendon and tendon sheath are assessed prior to the joint itself, where standard sagittal images form the basis of the examination, with axial (metacarpophalangeal joint, MCPJ) and coronal and axial (proximal interphalangeal joint, PIPJ) images used as adjuncts.



Coronal images of the IPJs are obtained by asking the patient to hyperextend the metacarpophalangeal of the finger being examined.



When examining the extensor surfaces of the finger joints, it is commonplace to assess the dorsal aspects of the wrist and associated tendons prior to turning to the palmar side. Whether both the extensor and flexor sides need to be examined remains debatable; however, published literature suggests that a significant proportion of synovitis would be overlooked if limited to one or the other, and it is the authors’ practice to examine the flexor aspects of the MCP and proximal IPJs at this time. Dynamic sonographic assessment by moving the joint can be useful to facilitate the detection of low-volume synovial thickening, which bunches up in the proximal extensor recess on flexion. Articular cartilage over the metacarpal and phalangeal heads can be more comprehensively demonstrated when the joint is examined in flexion as well as extension.


It is essential to appreciate the normal sonographic anatomy of the small joints to be able to identify pathology (Fig. 32.1). Superficial and deep flexor tendons can be identified as they pass over the MCPJs into the flexor tendon sheath of the fingers on the volar aspect of the joints. Dynamic assessment with finger movement can help identify them individually. The tendons are maintained in place by pulleys, seen as thin hypoechoic linear structures; the pulleys and other aspects of tendon pathology are discussed in Chapter 15.



Several connective tissue structures such as the collateral ligament, accessory collateral ligament and the volar plate strengthen the flexor side of the MCPJs and IPJs and can be identified on ultrasound. The proximal recess of the joint is the area between the volar aspect of the metacarpal neck and the joint capsule and contains intracapsular, but extrasynovial, fat, allowing close approximation of the two layers of synovium.



On the extensor surface of the joint the extensor tendon complex is identified. The joint line is evident and articular cartilage may be seen, especially over the metacarpal heads. An important recess to the MCP and IP joints is found over the dorsal aspect of the metacarpal or phalanx on the proximal side of the joint that may contain synovitis or fluid and should not be mistaken for a bursa or tenosynovitis.



Absolute measurements of normal joints remain undefined and most authors use the point of maximal joint distension for assessment of the joint; an increase in joint dimension of more than 1 mm above normal is sufficient to suggest abnormality.




Application of Ultrasound in Rheumatology


Ultrasound can be used to assess involvement in areas that are clinically occult as well as determine the precise structures involved. Serial examinations can assess current activity and disease distribution, and monitor progression or therapeutic response.


Jan 17, 2016 | Posted by in MUSCULOSKELETAL IMAGING | Comments Off on Ultrasound Imaging of Joint Disease
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