One should try to avoid spectral power Doppler during the first trimester because of its certain bio effects.
Definition—Condition in which fetus is not able to achieve its inherent growth potential. Fetal weight <10th percentile for gestational age or abdominal circumference (AC) <2.5 percentile for gestational age.
1. Maternal—Diabetes, alcohol, smoking, cardiovascular disease, nutritional deficiencies, anemia, and hypertension
3. Infection—CMV, rubella, and herpes
4. Placental—Abruptio, previa, and infarction
5. Genetic—Trisomy 13, 18, 21, Turners syndrome
7. Multiple gestations
Symmetrical—Entire body is proportionately small.
Due to congenital anomaly, genetic disorders, and congenital infections.
Usually diagnosed in the first or early second trimester.
Asymmetrical—Reduced blood supply and nourishment to the fetus usually due to placental insufficiency.
Usually diagnosed in the third trimester.
Normal biparietal diameter (BPD), head circumference (HC), and femur length (FL) with AC <2 SD below the mean.
Associated with reduced AFV.
1. Forewarning of fetal compromise
2. For placental insufficiency