49 Congenital and Acquired Alterations in Form and Structure of the Epiphyses



10.1055/b-0034-77674

49 Congenital and Acquired Alterations in Form and Structure of the Epiphyses

Horwitz,, A.

(Acquired and normal variants shown in parentheses)














































Form/Structure


Description


Found in


Figure


Pseudoepiphyses




  • Epiphyses or notches in atypical locations



  • Often found distal on metacarpal I and on the bases of metacarpals II and V




  • Hand-foot-uterus syndrome



  • Cockayne syndrome



  • Trisomy 21



  • Homocystinuria



  • (Normal variant)


16.1a


Ivory epiphyses (epiphyseal osteosclerosis)




  • Osteosclerosis of small, normally formed epiphyses



  • Usually distal and/or middle phalanx V




  • Homocystinuria



  • Silver-Russell syndrome



  • Cockayne syndrome



  • Trisomy 21



  • (Renal osteopathy, normal variant)


16.1 b


Cone-shaped epiphyses




  • Cone-shaped, central protrusions of the epiphyses pointing toward the metaphyses



  • The metaphyses have dents to fit the cone shape of the epiphyses



  • 38 groups are known




  • Achrondroplasia



  • Acrodysostosis



  • Beckwith-Wiedmann syndrome



  • Chondrodysplasia punctata



  • Cockayne syndrome



  • Orofaciodigital syndrome



  • Seckel syndrome



  • Trichorhinophalangeal syndrome



  • Sickle-cell anemia



  • (Frostbite, after trauma or osteomyelitis, normal variant)


16.1 b


Fragmented/deformed epiphyses




  • Numerous irregular epiphyseal fragments



  • Caused by a growth disturbance or other lesions




  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia



  • Morquio syndrome



  • Gaucher disease



  • Sickle-cell anemia



  • ASPED syndrome



  • (Avascular osteonecrosis, after trauma or infection)


16.1 c


Ring-shaped epiphyses




  • Epiphyses with central radiolucency and indistinct margins




  • Mucolipidoses



  • Gangliosidoses



  • (Rickets, hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, scurvy)

 

Spotted epiphyses




  • Punctate calcifications




  • Conradi-Hunermann syndrome



  • Zellweger syndrome



  • Warfarin/coumarin embryopathy

 

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Jul 21, 2020 | Posted by in MUSCULOSKELETAL IMAGING | Comments Off on 49 Congenital and Acquired Alterations in Form and Structure of the Epiphyses
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