Fetal Cardiac Measurements and Doppler Assessment






TABLE F-1

Mitral and Tricuspid Valve E/A Ratios







































































































































































Gestation (wk) MITRAL VALVE E/A RATIO TRICUSPID VALVE E/A RATIO
2.5th Percentile 50th Percentile 97.5th Percentile 2.5th Percentile 50th Percentile 97.5th Percentile
20 0.40 0.59 0.77 0.47 0.65 0.83
21 0.42 0.60 0.79 0.49 0.66 0.84
22 0.43 0.62 0.80 0.50 0.68 0.85
23 0.45 0.63 0.82 0.52 0.69 0.86
24 0.46 0.65 0.83 0.53 0.70 0.87
25 0.48 0.66 0.84 0.54 0.71 0.88
26 0.49 0.68 0.86 0.55 0.72 0.89
27 0.50 0.69 0.87 0.56 0.73 0.90
28 0.52 0.70 0.88 0.57 0.74 0.90
29 0.53 0.71 0.89 0.58 0.74 0.91
30 0.54 0.73 0.90 0.58 0.75 0.91
31 0.55 0.74 0.91 0.59 0.75 0.92
32 0.56 0.75 0.92 0.59 0.76 0.92
33 0.57 0.76 0.93 0.60 0.76 0.92
34 0.58 0.76 0.93 0.60 0.76 0.92
35 0.59 0.77 0.94 0.60 0.76 0.92
36 0.59 0.78 0.95 0.60 0.76 0.92
37 0.60 0.79 0.95 0.60 0.76 0.92
38 0.61 0.79 0.96 0.60 0.76 0.92

Note: A represents atrial contraction in late diastole; E represents passive ventricular filling in early diastole.

From DeVore GR: Pulsed Doppler examination of the fetal heart. In Goldberg BB, McGahan JP (eds): Atlas of Ultrasound Measurements, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Mosby/Elsevier, 2006.


TABLE F-2

Peak or Maximum Velocity of the Aorta and Main Pulmonary Artery







































































































































































Gestation (wk) AORTA PEAK VELOCITY (cm/sec) PULMONARY ARTERY PEAK VELOCITY (cm/sec)
2.5th Percentile 50th Percentile 97.5th Percentile 2.5th Percentile 50th Percentile 97.5th Percentile
20 29 62 95 23 53 80
21 30 63 96 24 54 81
22 32 65 98 25 56 82
23 33 66 99 27 57 84
24 34 67 100 28 58 85
25 36 68 101 29 59 86
26 37 70 103 30 61 87
27 38 71 104 31 62 89
28 40 72 105 32 63 90
29 41 74 107 34 64 91
30 42 75 108 35 65 92
31 44 76 109 36 67 93
32 45 77 110 37 68 95
33 46 79 112 38 69 96
34 48 80 113 39 70 97
35 49 81 114 41 72 98
36 50 82 115 42 73 100
37 52 84 117 43 74 101
38 53 85 118 44 78 102

From DeVore GR: Pulsed Doppler examination of the fetal heart. In Goldberg BB, McGahan JP (eds): Atlas of Ultrasound Measurements, 2nd ed. Philadelphia, Mosby/Elsevier, 2006.


TABLE F-3

Longitudinal Reference Ranges for Peak Systolic Velocity in the Ductus Venosus Based on 547 Observations in 160 Low-Risk Pregnancies


































































































































































































































Gestational Age (wk) PEAK SYSTOLIC VELOCITY IN DUCTUS VENOSUS (cm/sec) BY PERCENTILE
2.5th 5th 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 97.5th
21 46.2 48.0 50.2 54.3 59.3 65.1 70.9 74.8 78.5
22 48.3 50.1 52.4 56.6 61.8 67.6 73.7 77.7 81.4
23 50.1 52.0 54.3 58.6 63.9 69.9 76.1 80.1 83.9
24 51.6 53.5 55.9 60.3 65.7 71.9 78.2 82.3 86.2
25 52.8 54.8 57.2 61.7 67.2 73.5 79.9 84.2 88.1
26 53.8 55.8 58.3 62.8 68.5 74.9 81.4 85.7 89.7
27 54.5 56.6 59.1 63.8 69.5 76.0 82.7 87.1 91.1
28 55.1 57.2 59.7 64.4 70.3 76.9 83.7 88.1 92.3
29 55.4 57.6 60.2 64.9 70.8 77.6 84.5 89.0 93.2
30 55.6 57.7 60.4 65.2 71.2 78.0 85.0 89.7 94.0
31 55.6 57.8 60.5 65.3 71.4 78.3 85.4 90.1 94.5
32 55.5 57.7 60.4 65.3 71.4 78.5 85.7 90.4 94.9
33 55.3 57.5 60.2 65.2 71.4 78.5 85.8 90.6 95.1
34 55.0 57.2 59.9 64.9 71.2 78.3 85.7 90.6 95.2
35 54.6 56.8 59.5 64.5 70.8 78.1 85.5 90.5 95.1
36 54.1 56.3 59.1 64.1 70.4 77.7 85.2 90.3 94.9
37 53.6 55.8 58.6 63.6 70.0 77.3 84.9 89.9 94.7
38 53.0 55.2 58.0 63.0 69.4 76.8 84.4 89.5 94.3
39 52.4 54.6 57.4 62.4 68.8 76.2 83.9 89.0 93.8

From Kessler J, Rasmussen S, Hanson M, et al: Longitudinal reference ranges for ductus venosus flow velocities and waveform indices. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:890, 2006.


TABLE F-4

Longitudinal Reference Ranges for End-Diastolic Velocity in the Ductus Venosus Based on 547 Observations in 160 Low-Risk Pregnancies


































































































































































































































Gestational Age (wk) END-DIASTOLIC VELOCITY IN DUCTUS VENOSUS (cm/sec) BY PERCENTILE
2.5th 5th 10th 25th 50th 75th 90th 95th 97.5th
21 15.8 18.1 20.8 25.5 31.0 36.7 42.0 45.3 48.1
22 17.1 19.4 22.2 27.0 32.5 38.3 43.6 46.9 49.8
23 18.3 20.6 23.4 28.3 33.9 39.7 45.1 48.4 51.2
24 19.3 21.7 24.5 29.4 35.1 40.9 46.3 49.6 52.5
25 20.3 22.7 25.5 30.5 36.1 42.0 47.5 50.8 53.7
26 21.1 23.5 26.4 31.4 37.1 43.0 48.4 51.8 54.7
27 21.8 24.3 27.2 32.1 37.9 43.8 49.3 52.7 55.6
28 22.5 24.9 27.8 32.8 38.6 44.6 50.1 53.4 56.4
29 23.0 25.5 28.4 33.5 39.3 45.2 50.8 54.1 57.1
30 23.5 26.0 29.0 34.0 39.8 45.8 51.4 54.7 57.7
31 24.0 26.5 29.4 34.5 40.3 46.3 51.9 55.3 58.2
32 24.4 26.9 29.8 34.9 40.8 46.8 52.3 55.7 58.7
33 24.7 27.2 30.2 35.3 41.1 47.2 52.7 56.1 59.1
34 25.0 27.5 30.5 35.6 41.5 47.5 53.1 56.5 59.5
35 25.3 27.8 30.8 35.9 41.7 47.8 53.4 56.8 59.8
36 25.5 28.0 31.0 36.1 42.0 48.0 53.6 57.1 60.1
37 25.7 28.2 31.2 36.3 42.2 48.3 53.9 57.3 60.3
38 25.8 28.4 31.3 36.5 42.4 48.4 54.0 57.5 60.5
39 25.9 28.5 31.5 36.6 42.5 48.6 54.2 57.6 60.6

From Kessler J, Rasmussen S, Hanson M, et al: Longitudinal reference ranges for ductus venosus flow velocities and waveform indices. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 28:890, 2006.


TABLE F-5

Normal Echocardiographic Values for Fetal Cardiovascular Structures













































































































































Gestational Age (wk) TRICUSPID ANNULUS RIGHT-LEFT DIAMETER (cm)
2.5% 50.0% 97.5%
16 0.242 0.312 0.381
17 0.274 0.355 0.436
18 0.306 0.398 0.491
19 0.338 0.442 0.546
20 0.369 0.485 0.601
21 0.401 0.528 0.655
22 0.433 0.572 0.710
23 0.465 0.615 0.765
24 0.496 0.658 0.820
25 0.528 0.702 0.875
26 0.560 0.745 0.930
27 0.592 0.788 0.985
28 0.623 0.832 1.040
29 0.655 0.875 1.095
30 0.687 0.918 1.150
31 0.719 0.962 1.205
32 0.751 1.005 1.260
33 0.782 1.048 1.315
34 0.814 1.092 1.369
35 0.846 1.135 1.424
36 0.878 1.178 1.479
37 0.909 1.222 1.534
38 0.941 1.265 1.589
39 0.973 1.308 1.644
40 1.005 1.352 1.699
Mean = 0.04334 * GA − 0.38183
SD = −0.05801 + 0.00579 * GA













































































































































Gestational Age (wk) MITRAL ANNULUS RIGHT-LEFT DIAMETER (cm)
2.5% 50.0% 97.5%
16 0.242 0.347 0.452
17 0.272 0.382 0.491
18 0.303 0.416 0.530
19 0.333 0.451 0.570
20 0.363 0.486 0.609
21 0.394 0.521 0.648
22 0.424 0.556 0.687
23 0.454 0.591 0.727
24 0.485 0.625 0.766
25 0.515 0.660 0.805
26 0.546 0.695 0.844
27 0.576 0.730 0.884
28 0.606 0.765 0.923
29 0.637 0.799 0.962
30 0.667 0.834 1.001
31 0.697 0.869 1.041
32 0.728 0.904 1.080
33 0.758 0.939 1.119
34 0.789 0.974 1.158
35 0.819 1.008 1.198
36 0.849 1.043 1.237
37 0.880 1.078 1.276
38 0.910 1.113 1.315
39 0.941 1.148 1.355
40 0.971 1.182 1.394
Mean = 0.03482 * GA − 0.21035
SD = 0.01698 + 0.00222 * GA













































































































































Gestational Age (wk) PULMONARY ANNULUS DIAMETER (cm)
2.5% 50.0% 97.5%
16 0.190 0.251 0.313
17 0.214 0.282 0.350
18 0.239 0.313 0.387
19 0.263 0.343 0.424
20 0.287 0.374 0.461
21 0.312 0.405 0.498
22 0.336 0.436 0.535
23 0.360 0.466 0.572
24 0.385 0.497 0.609
25 0.409 0.528 0.647
26 0.434 0.559 0.684
27 0.458 0.589 0.721
28 0.482 0.620 0.758
29 0.507 0.651 0.795
30 0.531 0.682 0.832
31 0.556 0.712 0.869
32 0.580 0.743 0.906
33 0.604 0.774 0.943
34 0.629 0.805 0.980
35 0.653 0.835 1.018
36 0.677 0.866 1.055
37 0.702 0.897 1.092
38 0.726 0.927 1.129
39 0.751 0.958 1.166
40 0.775 0.989 1.203
Mean = 0.03074 * GA − 0.24064
SD = −0.02018 + 0.00318 * GA

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Feb 16, 2019 | Posted by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY | Comments Off on Fetal Cardiac Measurements and Doppler Assessment
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