Medications and Reported Associated Malformations






TABLE H-1

Selected Medications and Reported Associated Malformations *






































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Drug Malformation(s)
Acetazolamide Sacrococcygeal teratoma
Acyclovir CDH, neural tube defect, cleft lip, clubfoot, transposition
Alprazolam Umbilical hernia, clubfoot
Albuterol Cleft palate, cranioschisis, cardiovascular defect, spina bifida, polydactyly, fetal tachycardia
Amantadine Cardiac defects
Aminopterin Neural tube defects, hydrocephalus, limb shortening, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot
p-Aminosalicylic acid Ear deformity, limb deformity, hypospadias
Amiodarone FGR, ventricular septal defect, micrognathia
Amitriptyline Limb reduction, micrognathia, hypospadias, cleft palate, thanatophoric dysplasia
Ampicillin Transposition of the great vessels
Amobarbital Anencephaly, cardiac defects, limb deformity, cleft lip/palate, polydactyly, genitourinary defects, clubfoot
Amphetamine Cerebral injury in neonates
Aspirin Intracranial hemorrhage, FGR
Atenolol Hypospadias, cardiovascular defects
Atropine Polydactyly, limb reduction
Azatadine Oral cleft, limb reduction
Baclofen Spina bifida
Belladonna Eye/ear malformations, hypospadias
Benztropine Cardiovascular defects
Bromides Polydactyly, gastrointestinal anomalies, clubfoot, FGR
Busulfan FGR, cleft palate, neural tube defects
Captopril Second-trimester hypocalvaria, oligohydramnios, renal dysfunction
Carbamazepine Neural tube defects, cardiac defects
Carisoprodol Oral clefts
Cephalexin Cardiovascular defects, oral clefts
Cephradine Cardiovascular defects
Chlorambucil Renal agenesis, cardiac defects
Chlordiazepoxide Microcephaly, duodenal atresia, cardiac defects
Chloroquine Wilms tumor, hemihypertrophy, tetralogy of Fallot
Chlorothiazide Fetal bradycardia
Chlorpheniramine Polydactyly, gastrointestinal defects, hydrocephalus
Chlorpromazine Microcephaly, syndactyly
Chlorpropamide Microcephaly, hand anomalies
Ciprofloxacin Hypospadias, cerebellar hypoplasia, cardiovascular defect, femoral aplasia
Clarithromycin Craniofacial abnormalities, absent clavicles, spina bifida, cleft lip, pulmonary hypoplasia; coloboma, heart anomaly, choanal atresia, retardation (mental and somatic), genital and ear anomalies (CHARGE) association
Clomiphene Microcephaly, neural tube defects, cleft lip/palate, cardiac defects, syndactyly, clubfoot, hypospadias
Clonazepam Cardiovascular defects
Clorazepate Bifid foot, absent scrotum, short femur, absent fibula, absent metacarpal bones, renal agenesis
Cloxacillin Cardiovascular defects
Cocaine Spontaneous abortion, placental abruption, cardiac defects, urinary tract and limb abnormalities, bowel atresias, FGR
Codeine Pulmonary and genitourinary defects, hydrocephalus, cleft lip/palate
Colchicine Cardiac malformation, syndactyly, cleft palate
Cortisone Cataracts, cyclopia, VSD, coarctation of the aorta, clubfoot, cleft lip, gastroschisis
Coumarin derivatives Spontaneous abortion, FGR, neural tube defects (open and closed) (dorsal midline dysplasia), cardiac defects, scoliosis, limb hypoplasia, cleft palate
Cyclophosphamide Cleft palate, hand abnormalities, cardiac defects, FGR
Cyclosporine Limb hypoplasia, agenesis of the corpus callosum, anencephaly, FGR
Cyproheptadine Cleft lip/palate, hypospadias
Cytarabine Hand abnormalities (lobster claw deformity), lower limb defects, neural tube defects, cardiac defects
Dacarbazine Limb reduction defects, cleft palate, encephalocele
Danazol Ambiguous genitalia
Daunorubicin FGR
Dexfenfluramine Hand malformation, anencephaly, vertebral abnormality
Diazepam Cleft lip/palate, cardiac defects
Dicyclomine Polydactyly
Dilantin Microcephaly, hypertelorism, cleft lip/palate, hypoplasia of distal phalanges, short neck, broad nasal ridge
Diltiazem Cardiovascular defects
Dimenhydrinate Cardiovascular defects
Diphenhydramine Cleft lip/palate, genitourinary defects, clubfoot, cardiac defects
Disulfiram Clubfoot, vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac anomalies, tracheoesophageal fistula with esophageal atresia, renal anomalies, limb anomalies (VACTERL) syndrome, phocomelia
Doxepin Oral clefts, polydactyly
Droperidol Hydrocephalus, cerebral hypoplasia
Enalapril Hypocalvaria, renal defects
Ephedrine Clubfoot
Ethanol (alcohol) FGR, microphthalmia, micrognathia, microcephaly, hypoplastic maxilla, cardiac defects, gentourinary defects, radioulnar synostosis, Klippel-Feil anomaly, diaphragmatic hernia
Ethoheptazine Umbilical hernia, hip dislocation
Ethotoin Cleft lip/palate, patent ductus arteriosus
Ethosuximide Cleft lip/palate, hydrocephalus, patent ductus arteriosus, spontaneous hemorrhage in the neonate
Etretinate Neural tube defects, facial dysmorphia, multiple synostoses, syndactylies, limb reduction
Fluconazole Craniosynostosis, cleft palate, limb shortening
Fluorouracil Radial aplasia, pulmonary hypoplasia, esophageal and duodenal atresia, cloacal malformation
Fluphenazine Ocular hypertelorism, cleft lip/palate, imperforate anus
Furosemide Hypospadias
Griseofulvin Conjoined twins
Haloperidol Limb reduction, aortic valve defect
Heparin Cardiovascular defects
Heroin FGR, multiple and varied congenital malformations
Hydroxyprogesterone Spina bifida, anencephaly, tetralogy of Fallot, truncus arteriosus, VSD
Hydroxyzine Oral clefts
Hyoscyamine Polydactyly, limb reduction
Ibuprofen Oligohydramnios, premature closure of patent ductus arteriosus
Imipramine Diaphragmatic hernia, cleft palate, exencephaly, renal cystic dysplasia, amelia
Indomethacin Oligohydramnios, premature closure of patent ductus arteriosus, phocomelia, penile agenesis
Isoetharine Clubfoot
Isotretinoin Hydrocephalus, neural tube defects, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cardiac defects, limb abnormalities, cleft palate
Itraconazole Limb defect
Ketoconazole Limb defect
Ketorolac Constriction of the ductus arteriosus, fetal renal impairment
Levothyroxine Cardiac defects, polydactyly
Lindane Hypospadias
Lisinopril Hypocalvaria, polydactyly, oligohydramnios
Lithium Cardiac defects (Ebstein anomaly, VSD, coarctation, mitral atresia), neural tube defects
Lovastatin Aortic hypoplasia, VSD, anal atresia, renal dysplasia, radial aplasia
Lysergic acid diethylamide FGR, limb reduction, neural tube defects, cardiac defects
Marijuana FGR, facial anomalies
Mechlorethamine FGR, oligodactyly, malformed kidneys
Medroxyprogesterone Cardiovascular defect
Meclizine Eye and ear defects, hypoplastic heart, respiratory defects
Mefenamic acid Constriction of the ductus arteriosus
Melphalan FGR
Meprobamate Cardiac defects, omphalocele, joint abnormalities
Mercaptopurine Cleft palate, microphthalmia, FGR
Metaproterenol Polydactyly
Methimazole Patent urachus
Methotrexate FGR, hypertelorism, dextroposition of the heart, absent digits, absence of frontal bone
Methotrimeprazine Hydrocephalus, cardiac defects
Metronidazole Spontaneous abortion, limb, cardiac, urinary, and facial abnormalities
Mifepristone Sirenomelia, caudal regression syndrome
Minoxidil Omphalocele, clinodactyly, cardiac defects (VSD and transposition)
Misoprostol Limb defects, hypocalvaria, cleft lip, clubfoot, gastroschisis
Norethindrone Neural tube defects, hydrocephalus
Norethynodrel Cardiac defects, hypospadias
Nortriptyline Limb reduction
Ofloxacin Myelomeningocele, hydrocephalus, hypospadias
Omeprazole Anencephaly, hydranencephaly, clubfoot
Oxazepam Neural tube defects, FGR
Paramethadione Spontaneous abortions, FGR, cardiac defects
Penicillamine Hydrocephalus, flexion deformities, perforated bowel
Pentoxifylline Cardiac defects
Phenacetin Craniosynostosis and atresia, musculoskeletal and urinary tract defects
Phenobarbital Cardiovascular defects
Phensuximide Ambiguous genitalia
Phenylephrine Eye and ear abnormalities, syndactyly, clubfoot, musculoskeletal defects
Phenylpropanolamine Eye and ear abnormalities, polydactyly, hypospadias
Phenytoin Microcephaly, hypertelorism, cleft lip/palate, hypoplasia of distal phalanges, short neck, broad nasal ridge
Podophyllum Limb reduction
Procarbazine FGR, cardiac defects, oligodactyly, malformed kidneys
Prochlorperazine Cleft palate/micrognathia, cardiac defects, skeletal defects
Propoxyphene Limb abnormalities, omphalocele, micrognathia, clubfoot, microcephaly
Quinacrine Renal agenesis, neural tube defects
Quinine Neural tube defects, hydrocephalus, limb defects, facial defects, cardiac defects, urogenital abnormalities, vertebral abnormality, gastrointestinal anomaly
Reserpine Microcephaly, hydronephrosis
Retinoic acid Hydrocephalus, neural tube defects, microphthalmia, microcephaly, cardiac defects, limb abnormalities, cleft palate
Rifampin Anencephaly, hydrocephalus, limb malformation
Sodium iodide Ablation of fetal thyroid gland
Sulfasalazine Cleft lip/palate, hydrocephalus, cardiac defects, urinary tract abnormalities
Sulfonamides Limb hypoplasia, urinary tract abnormalities
Sumatriptan Phocomelia, tibial aplasia, clubfoot, cleft palate
Tamoxifen Ambiguous genitalia
Tazarotene Reduced skeletal ossification, hydrocephaly, spina bifida, cardiac defects
Temazepam Oral clefts
Terfenadine Polydactyly
Tetracycline Hypospadias, limb hypoplasia
Thioguanine Absent digits
Tolbutamide Syndactyly, cardiac defects, clubfoot
Trifluoperazine Phocomelia, transposition of the great vessels
Trimethadione FGR, microcephaly, cleft lip/palate, cardiac defects, malformed hand, clubfoot, ambiguous genitalia, esophageal atresia, tracheoesophageal fistula
Trimethoprim Cardiovascular defects
Valproic acid Neural tube defects, cardiac defects, facial dysmorphism, hypertelorism, protruding eyes, micrognathia, hydrocephalus, cleft lip/palate, microcephaly, limb reduction, scoliosis, renal hypoplasia, duodenal atresia, hand deformity
Zidovudine Renal agenesis, microphthalmus, polydactyly, cleft lip/palate, clubfoot, VSD

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Feb 16, 2019 | Posted by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY | Comments Off on Medications and Reported Associated Malformations
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