Nasal Cavity: The Nares and Nasal Passages



10.1055/b-0034-87900

Nasal Cavity: The Nares and Nasal Passages





































Table 4.37 Opacification

Diagnosis


Findings


Comments


Choanal atresia/stenosis


Fig. 4.134


CT: measure width of both posterior choanae at maximum stenosis and width of the inferoposterior vomer, which is abnormally widened.


Most common congenital abnormality of nasal cavity. Bony/membranous/mixed.


Severe respiratory compromise if bilateral.


Choanal airspace < 0.34 cm. Inability to pass naso-gastric tube 3–4 cm into nose.


Foreign body


Fig. 4.135


Lateral/AP radiograph: visible if radiopaque ± soft-tissue swelling.



Hypertrophied nasal turbinate


Fig. 4.136


Lateral radiograph: soft-tissue mass encroaching on nasopharynx.


Coronal CT/MRI: Asymmetry of turbinates is well demonstrated. No demonstrable air between wall and turbinate.


Can cause nasal airway obstruction.


May be physiological nasal cycle.


Polyp


Fig. 4.137


Radiograph: vague soft-tissue density in nasal fossa. CT/MRI: discrete single or multiple broad-based masses.


Uncommon in children.


Associated with cystic fibrosis.


If multiple, does not destroy septa.


Ossifying fibroma


Fig. 4.138


CT: expansile, well-circumscribed lesion that ossifies starting around the periphery with central nonossified fibrous tissue.


Grows aggressively and may recur postsurgery.


Neoplasm (malignancy)


Extension into nasal cavity from sinus/pharyngeal/orbital tumor.


(see Table 4.39 )

Fig. 4.135 Occipitomental radiograph shows right nasal radiopaque foreign body.
Fig. 4.134 Axial CT (bone window) shows left posterior choanal atresia.
Fig. 4.136 Lateral radiograph of the nasopharynx shows a soft-tissue mass projected over the nasopharynx representing hypertrophy of nasal turbinate.
Fig. 4.137 Coronal CT (bone window) shows bilateral nasal, maxillary, and ethmoid sinus opacification in polyposis.
Fig. 4.138 Coronal CT (bone window) shows a well-circumscribed, expansile osseous lesion with a central nonossified portion centered in the left ethmoid sinus and nasal passage, which has the characteristic appearance of an ossifying fibroma.

Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue

Jul 12, 2020 | Posted by in PEDIATRIC IMAGING | Comments Off on Nasal Cavity: The Nares and Nasal Passages
Premium Wordpress Themes by UFO Themes