Identify anatomic definitions for directional terms, anatomic position, and anatomic planes.
Demonstrate the sonography examination to include patient position, transducer orientation, image presentation, and image labeling.
Define the terms used to describe image quality.
Describe the echo patterns demonstrating how normal and pathologic conditions can be defined using image quality definitions.
List and recognize the sonography criteria for cystic, solid, and complex conditions.
Describe the appropriate patient preparation for a sonography evaluation.
State what should and what should not be included in the sonographer’s documentation of the sonography examination.
Calculate sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy using the four outcomes of true positive, false positive, true negative, and/or false negative.
TABLE 2-1 Directional Terms
transducer’s orientation (i.e., transverse). A more specific description of the image would include both the anatomic plane and the patient position (i.e., transverse, oblique).
FIGURE 2-1 Directional terms. The drawing depicts a body in the anatomic position (standing erect, arms by the side, face and palms directed forward) with the directional terms. The directional terms correlate with the terms in Table 2-1.
TABLE 2-2 Patient Positions
FIGURE 2-3 Patient positions. The various patient positions depicted in the illustration correlate with the descriptions in Table 2-2. LAO, left anterior oblique; LPO, left posterior oblique; RAO, right anterior oblique; RPO, right posterior oblique.
organ imaging, transverse planes are perpendicular to the long axis of the organ, and longitudinal and coronal planes are referenced to a surface. All three planes are based on the patient position and the scanning surface (Fig. 2-4A-C).