NECK AND FACE

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on NECK AND FACE

7.1 CLEFT LIP AND PALATE Print Section Listen EPIDEMIOLOGY/GENETICS Definition A facial cleft involving the upper lip or palate, usually occurring to the left or right of midline, the cleft…

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TUMORS OF THE BRAIN

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on TUMORS OF THE BRAIN

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Fetal brain tumors are rare and usually diagnosed only in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy or even only after delivery. Most types have…

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FETAL CEREBRAL CIRCULATION

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on FETAL CEREBRAL CIRCULATION

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Data collected from Doppler velocity recordings using both spectral and color Doppler mode confirm the fundamental aspects of the fetoplacental circulation. Changes in…

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INTRACRANIAL CYSTS

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on INTRACRANIAL CYSTS

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS One of the most common and usually benign fetal brain tetralogy pathology. Easily detected due to its obvious anechoic appearance at places that…

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ANOMALIES OF THE CEREBELLUM

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on ANOMALIES OF THE CEREBELLUM

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS A wide variety of congenital anomalies can affect the cerebellum. The antenatal findings overlap among different pathologies and normal variants. Consequently, a specific…

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ANOMALIES OF VENTRAL INDUCTION

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on ANOMALIES OF VENTRAL INDUCTION

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Anomalies of ventral induction of the fetal brain include a group of conditions that share in common an anomalous process of cleavage of…

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VERTEBRAL ANOMALIES

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on VERTEBRAL ANOMALIES

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Sonographic evaluation of the vertebral column and the spine is a requirement of almost all governing bodies. Starting the 13th postmenstrual weeks it…

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INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS AFFECTING THE BRAIN

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on INTRAUTERINE INFECTIONS AFFECTING THE BRAIN

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Depending on geographic factors, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and toxoplasmosis are the more frequent intrauterine infections (IUIs). The pattern of brain involvement in CMV-IUI may…

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METABOLIC DISORDERS

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on METABOLIC DISORDERS

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are rare disorders, most of them only present after delivery. Several IEMs may affect the fetus, producing congenital…

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MISCELLANEOUS ABNORMALITIES

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on MISCELLANEOUS ABNORMALITIES

12.1 AMNIOTIC BAND SYNDROME Print Section Listen EPIDEMIOLOGY/GENETICS Definition Amniotic band syndrome (ABS) is a rare spectrum of congenital anomalies caused by entanglement of fetal parts, or disruption of anatomic…

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