SKELETAL ABNORMALITIES

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on SKELETAL ABNORMALITIES

8.0 INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen DIAGNOSTIC APPROACH TO SUSPECTED SKELETAL DYSPLASIAS The overall incidence of a lethal skeletal dysplasia is 1/10,000. A detailed fetal anatomic survey is required to satisfactorily…

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ANOMALIES OF DORSAL INDUCTION

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on ANOMALIES OF DORSAL INDUCTION

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Failure of closure of the neural tube during neurulation results in neural tube defects. Neurulation, both primary and secondary, are completed by approximately…

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THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

6.1 ANAL ATRESIA Print Section Listen EPIDEMIOLOGY/GENETICS Definition Anal atresia is the congenital absence of an anal opening. Epidemiology Occurrence is 1 5000 births (M3:F2). Embryology Anal atresia results from…

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SYNDROMES

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on SYNDROMES

10.1 BECKWITH-WIEDEMANN SYNDROME Print Section Listen EPIDEMIOLOGY/GENETICS Definition Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a somatic overgrowth syndrome characterized by macrosomia, omphalocele, macroglossia, and ear creases. Epidemiology Occurrence is 1 in 13,700…

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THE FETAL EYE

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on THE FETAL EYE

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS A fetal neuroscan is not complete without a thorough examination of the orbits, the eyes, and their surroundings. Malformations of the eyes can…

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CRANIOFACIAL ANOMALIES

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on CRANIOFACIAL ANOMALIES

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS The most frequent craniofacial malformations are facial clefts. Different varieties exist. These conditions can be corrected surgically with good results. However, they are…

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BIOMETRY OF THE FETAL BRAIN

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on BIOMETRY OF THE FETAL BRAIN

INTRODUCTION Print Section Listen Prenatal diagnosis should be instituted accurately and early enough to achieve an excellent level of care of the obstetric patient. Ultrasonography, with its increasingly better resolution…

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MALFORMATIONS OF CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT

Jan 12, 2019 by in ULTRASONOGRAPHY Comments Off on MALFORMATIONS OF CORTICAL DEVELOPMENT

KEY POINTS Print Section Listen KEY POINTS Proliferation, neuronal migration, and organization occur relatively late in pregnancy and do not end until after delivery. Malformations of cortical development (MCD) may…

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